开发商在诉讼过程中维修涉案房屋应注意的问题
Matters to which the Developer Shall Pay Attention When Fixing the House Involved in the Course of Proceedings
2017/2/14 13:33:50 点击率[135] 评论[0]
【法宝引证码】
    【学科类别】合同法
    【出处】邓永泉律师的博客
    【写作时间】2011年
    【中文关键字】开发商;诉讼;涉案房屋
    【全文】

      As cases involving disputes over the quality of residential commodity houses will, more often than not, make the developer obliged to fix the houses involved therein in the course of proceedings, proper handling of the matters encountered during the fixing work can be highly relevant to the final judgment following the hearing. According to our experiences, the developer is expected to pay attention to the following matters:
     
      在商品房质量纠纷案件中,开发商常需要在诉讼过程中维修涉案房屋。正确处理维修过程中遇到的问题,会直接影响案件的审理结果。根据我们的经验,开发商需要注意以下问题:
     
      1.Owner's Tactics
     
      业主的策略
     
      For the purpose of gaining the advantageous position in the lawsuit, mostly the owner may ask the developer to fix the house before suddenly filing a lawsuit, expecting that the messy work site will leave a bad impression on the judge as a way to obtain a judgment in his favor.
     
      为了在诉讼中取得有利地位,业主往往先让开发商进行维修,在维修过程中再突然提起诉讼,以期狼藉不堪的维修现场给法官留下非常不好的印象,促使法官作出有利于自己的判决。
     
      2.Fixing in the course of proceedings
     
      诉讼过程中的维修
     
      The developer shall do whatever it can to request the judge to specify in the transcript of hearing that the fixing work of the house involved in the case shall be started in the course of proceedings so as to realize the following objectives:
     
      开发商应尽可能要求法官在庭审笔录中决定在诉讼过程中就对涉案房屋进行维修,藉此实现以下目标:
     
      (1)To avoid increasing the losses and mitigate the compensation liability of the developer
     
      避免扩大损失,减轻开发商的赔偿责任。
     
      Some quality problems may affect the proper residence of the owner, while some others may have been detected prior to the occupancy of the owner who, therefore, left the house vacant thereafter. In this sense, to restore the house to its normal using standard by fixing it as soon as possible can avoid increasing the losses. Particularly, in those cases that can constitute the delay of house delivery, the compensation liability of the developer can be largely mitigated.
     
      有的质量问题影响业主居住,有的质量问题是在业主入住之前发现的,业主也就一直没有入住。因此,尽快维修涉案房屋达到可以正常使用的状态,可以避免扩大损失,特别是在可以构成延期交房的案件中,可以大大减轻开发商的赔偿责任。
     
      (2)To reduce the pressure on the judge and lower the lawsuit risk
     
      减轻法官压力,降低诉讼风险。
     
      If the house involved in legal cases has been in a situation that it can not be normally used for long, the judge thereof will assume great pressure. It is particularly true when it comes to series cases. In this connection, the possibility of the judge making the judgment in favor of the owner is higher. Hence, the developer can strive to be in an advantageous position in the course of proceedings and reduce the compensation amount by fixing the house as soon as possible.
     
      如果涉案房屋一直处于无法正常使用的状态,特别是在系列案件中,法官会有很大压力,就更有可能作出有利于业主的判决。尽快维修涉案房屋,开发商可以争取有利的诉讼地位,降低赔偿金额。
     
      (3)To correct the preliminary determination on evidence of the judge
     
      纠正法官对证据的初步判断
     
      The owner may usually tend to exaggerate the losses incurred by the quality problems, while the determination on the relevant evidence is largely based on the judge's discretion. Therefore, where the developer can get the house involved in the case fixed within a short period of time, or the developer can even prove that the quality problems do not exist at all in terms of engineering standard, the judge's confidence in the evidence provided by the owner will be affected, and the judge may be inclined to make the determination on the evidence in favor of the developer.
     
      业主往往会放大质量问题造成的损失,相关证据的认定在很大程度上依赖于法官的自由裁量权。如果开发商很快维修好涉案房屋,甚至从工程角度证明有些问题根本不存在,就会影响法官对业主证据的信任,从而促使法官作出有利于开发商的证据认定。
     
      What are the specific matters the developer shall pay attention to during the fixing work then?
     
      那么,开发商在维修时应注意哪些问题呢?
     
      (1)Preparation for the fixing
     
      维修准备
     
      If the owner has not used the house involved in the case, the developer may opt for obtaining the key of the house for the convenience of the fixing work, and on the other hand for avoiding the sudden abruption by the owner who may file a lawsuit thereafter on the other. However, if the house has been occupied by the owner, it is highly recommended that the developer may not hold the key so as to avoid the disputes over the damage of the articles in the house.
     
      如果业主尚未使用涉案房屋,开发商可以考虑拿到涉案房屋的钥匙,以便能够顺利维修,还可以避免业主突然中断维修,提起诉讼。但是,如果业主已经入住,开发商最好不要拿涉案房屋的钥匙,以免发生物品损坏方面的纠纷。
     
      Besides, the developer should request the owner to clear the site of fixing work, e.g. when fixing the water leakage in a certain room, even if the work can be done without removing the furniture therein, the developer should also make such request to avoid any disputes over the damage of the articles. If the owner insists in not doing so, or is objectively unable to do so, all the articles that cannot be removed should be sealed, and the fixing work shall be done in the presence of the three parties, namely the developer, the owner and the property service agent. Please bear in mind that as both parties have commenced the lawsuit, it is possible that any undesirable things might happen at any time.
     
      另外,开发商应要求业主将维修现场清理干净。例如,如果某个房间渗水,即使无须移走所有家具也可以进行维修,开发商也应要求业主把这个房间腾空,以免发生物品损坏方面的纠纷。如果业主坚持不同意,或者客观上无法腾空,也要把所有不能移走的物品贴上封条,并且在开发商、业主和物业人员三方在场的情况下进行维修。切记,既然双方已经诉诸诉讼,任何不愉快的事情都有可能发生。
     
      (2)To record the process and result of the fixing work in detail so as to keep relevant evidence thereof
     
      详细记录维修过程与成果,留下相应证据。
     
      First, the developer shall ask the property service agent to be present at the site of fixing work. Secondly, the developer shall record in writing such specifics as the starting time, ending time, work contents and quantity, reasons for the failure of the fixing work delivery etc. on each occasion of the fixing work. The developer shall also take photos of the fixing work site, and request the owner to sign on the said record for confirmation. If the owner refuses to sign on it, the developer shall ask the property service agent to do so.
     
      首先,开发商应要求物业人员到维修现场进行作证。其次,开发商一定要以书面形式详细记录每次维修的开始时间、结束时间、工作内容、工作量、不能维修的原因等事项,拍摄维修现场的照片,并要求业主签字确认。如果业主拒绝签字确认,则要求物业人员签字证明。
     
      (3)To strictly follow the requirement set forth in the transcript of hearing when delivering the fixing work and do not act beyond the scope of the fixing work without careful consideration
     
      严格按照庭审笔录的要求进行维修,轻易不要突破维修范围。
     
      Generally the judge will detail the contents of the fixing work in the transcript of hearing, but more often than not, the owner will require the developer to fix other items beyond the scope specified in the transcript of hearing. For instance, although in the transcript the judge may require the developer to fix the upper hose to address the quality problem of water supply, yet the owner may require the developer to dig out the sewer pipe for check. Under such circumstance, the developer shall ask the owner to make the requirement in writing specifying that if the quality problem of water supply does not result from the malfunction of the sewer pipe, the fee relating to the digging out work shall be covered by the owner who may also choose to make the payment of the said fee by deduction from compensation amount.
     
      法官一般会在庭审笔录中详细说明维修的内容。但在维修过程中,业主常常会要求开发商维修笔录范围之外的地方。例如,法官在笔录中要求开发商维修上水管道,以解决自来水质量问题。但业主却要求开发商把下水管道也挖开查看。在这种情况下,开发商应要求业主书面提出要求,如果自来水质量问题不是由下水管道问题造成的,那么业主就应承担下水管道开挖的费用,并可从赔偿总额中扣除。
     
      (4)To avoid detection of new problems
     
      避免发现新的问题
     
      In a certain legal case we have dealt with, according to the transcript of hearing, the developer was required to fix the upper hose in the basement, but upon the said hose having been dug out, the worker dug further under the requirement of the owner. The result is that a large amount of construction debris were dug out, based on which the owner believed that the overall quality of the house was doubtful, and made other requirements thereafter. Therefore, the above circumstance seriously affected the judge' s impression of the developer.
     
      在我们处理的一个案件中,根据庭审笔录的要求,开发商要维修地下室的上水管道。但当维修人员已经把上水管道挖出来时,却还根据业主的要求继续向下挖。结果,许多施工垃圾被挖了出来,业主据此认为整个房屋的质量都有问题,又提出了其他要求,同时,严重影响了法官对开发商的印象。
     
      3.Handling procedure and the role of customer service agent
     
      处理程序与客服的角色
     
      Upon receiving complaints for quality from the customer, the customer service agent may not handle it in a hurry. Instead, the agent shall inquire the case in detail and report to the company management as soon as possible. The engineering, legal and customer service personnel then shall meeting to find out the facts and the cause of the case and work for a solution plan. Finally, the said personnel altogether shall initiate consultation with the owner for solution.
     
      当业主向客服投诉质量问题时,客服不要急于处理,而应详细了解情况,尽快向公司管理层汇报。然后,工程、法务和客服三方人员一起讨论,查明事情真相与原因,并制订解决方案。最后,工程、法务和客服三方人员共同与业主协商解决。
     
      Prior to the dispute, the role that the customer service agent has to play is service provider for the owner. Upon the occurrence of the dispute, however, the role of the agent, instead of being the service provider, will be the developer's agent who may negotiate the solution with the owner. In this sense, the agent shall pay his/her attention to the following instructions:
     
      在纠纷发生之前,客服的角色是为业主服务,但当纠纷发生之后,客服就不再是服务人员,而是作为开发商的工作人员,与业主协商解决纠纷。为此,客服应注意以下事项:
     
      (1)To promptly report the complaint from the owner to the company management rather than solve the problem on his/her own part;
     
      尽快向公司管理层汇报业主的投诉,不要自己去解决问题;
     
      (2)To be polite when dealing with the owner prior to or during the lawsuit and to refrain from arguing, particularly from disputing with the owner in an effort to avoid intensifying the conflict even leaving any unfavorable evidence;
     
      在诉讼前和诉讼过程中都要以礼相待,不要与业主辩论,更不要争吵,以免激化矛盾甚至授人以柄;
     
      (3)To strictly follow the requirement set forth in the transcript of hearing rather than follow whatever instruction from the owner.
     
      在维修过程中严格遵守庭审笔录的要求,不要业主说什么就做什么。
     
      It represents a systematic program to solve the disputes over the quality of residential commodity houses, and fixing service delivery in the proceedings constitutes a crucial part thereof. To that end, different functionaries of the developer are expected to work in coordination and make conscious efforts to act pursuant to the relevant procedures. Only by doing so can the developer expects a promising result of the case in its favor.
     
      解决商品房质量纠纷是一个系统工程,诉讼过程中的维修是一个重要方面,需要开发商的各个部门协调一致,严格依照程序行事,这样才能促使案件向有利于自己的方向发展。

    【作者简介】
    邓永泉,律师,大成律师事务所高级合伙人、北京仲裁委员会仲裁员、中欧仲裁委员会仲裁员,《商法》(China Business Law Journal)“法律精英100强”(China's Top100 Lawyers)。

    本网站文章仅代表作者个人观点,不代表本网站的观点与看法。
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