中英双语:国际商事争端预防与解决组织面面观
2020/11/17 15:08:33  点击率[4]  评论[0]
【法宝引证码】
    【学科类别】国际商法
    【出处】微信公众号: 全面依法治国研究院
    【写作时间】2020年
    【中文关键字】国际商事;争端;解决机制
    【全文】

      2020年10月15日,国际商事争端预防与解决组织(International Commercial Dispute Prevention and Settlement Organization,ICDPASO)在中国北京宣布成立。作为一家民间性的非政府间国际组织,ICDPASO将为世界各国提供商事仲裁、商事调解、投资仲裁、争端预防等法律服务。
     
      On 15 Oct. 2020, the International Commercial Dispute Prevention and Settlement Organization (ICDPASO) was established in Beijing, China. As a non-governmental international organization, ICDPASO will provide legal services including commercial arbitration, commercial mediation, investment arbitration and dispute prevention for countries/regions around the globe.
     
      一、背景:国际商事争议解决机制的创新
     
      I. Background: innovation of the international commercial dispute settlement mechanism
     
      2018年1月23日,中央全面深化改革领导小组第二次会议通过了《关于建立“一带一路”争端解决机制和机构的意见》(以下简称《意见》)。[1]该意见指出,构建国际争端解决机构、建立诉讼、调解与仲裁衔接的多元化解决解决机制,对优化国际商贸与投资环境、为“一带一路”保驾护航具有重要意义。
     
      The Opinions on Establishing ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ Dispute Settlement Mechanism and Organization (关于建立“一带一路”争端解决机制和机构的意见) (hereinafter referred to as “the Opinions”) was passed on the second session of the Comprehensively Deepening Reform Leadership Group of CCCPC on 23 Jan. 2018. According to the Opinions, in order to further improve the international trade/investment environment and safeguard the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), it’s of significant importance to establish an international dispute settlement organization, as well as a diversified dispute settlement mechanism featuring a synergetic use of litigation, mediation, and arbitration.
     
      根据上述《意见》,中国国际贸易促进委员会(China Council for the Promotion of International Trade,CCPIT)历经4年时间,牵头组建了ICDPASO。ICDPASO立足于“民间发起、政府支持推动”的民间性性质定位,其志在成为服务于“一带一路”需求的国际商事争端解决组织。
     
      For this purpose, with four-year efforts, the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) successfully facilitates the establishment of ICDPASO. With the “NGO-initiated and government-supported” nature, ICDPASO is committed to becoming an international commercial dispute settlement organization catering to the BRI.
     
      与现有的其他国际商事争议解决机制相比,ICDPASO还具有如下创新性的特征:(1)除了争端的事后解决外,还重视争端预防;(2)除了将国际商事争议纳入受案范围外,还将投资者与国家间争端纳入受案范围;(3)除了以仲裁方式解决争端外,还重视调解在化解争端方面的独特作用。。
     
      Compared with other existing international commercial dispute settlement mechanisms, ICDPASO is featured by the following innovation: (1) in addition to dispute settlement, ICDPASO also attaches importance to dispute prevention; (2) ICDPASO not only accepts international commercial disputes, but also disputes between investors and countries; (3) apart from arbitration, ICDPASO also values the role of mediation in dispute settlement.
     
      二、ICDPASO的设立方案
     
      II. The design of ICDPASO
     
      (一)机构命名的主要考虑:包容性与开放性
     
      1. Name of the organization: inclusiveness and openness
     
      ICDPASO的命名体现了其服务范围,即立足于国际视野,同时聚焦于商事争端。首先,其名称中,不附加“一带一路”字样。因为CCPIT希望,其受案范围在侧重“一带一路”沿线国的同时,但是又不严格局限于此。其次,该机构不仅仅提供仲裁、调解等争端解决服务,还对潜在争端进行预防。基于此,机构名称定为“国际商事争端预防与解决组织”。
     
      The naming of ICDPASO mirrors its service scope, that is, not only having an international perspective, but also focusing on commercial disputes. First of all, CCPIT excludes the expression of “the Belt and Road”, because ICDPASO is designed to handle disputes focusing on but not limited to those from countries along the BRI. Secondly, ICDPASO not only provides dispute settlement services such as arbitration and mediation, but also highlights the dispute prevention. Therefore, the official name is determined as “International Commercial Dispute Prevention and Settlement Organization”.
     
      (二)机构性质的主要考虑:国际性与公益性
     
      2. Nature of the organization: internationality and non-profit
     
      ICDPASO属于一家非政府间国际组织。CCPIT的目的在于:首先,突出其国际性,避免被视为专属于某一国家的国内机构,从而与中国各地现有的仲裁委员会区分开来;其次,强调其公益性,即它并非以营利为目的的公司,而是以服务于国际经贸、商事与投资争端的当事人为宗旨、以预防及化解国际争端为目标的机构。
     
      Firstly, CCPIT hopes to highlight ICDPASO’s internationality and keep it from being regarded as a domestic institution exclusive to a certain country. In this sense, ICDPASO distinguishes itself from other existing arbitration institutions in China.
     
      Secondly, CCPIT wants to distinguish it from a company. With its non-profit nature, ICDPASO is an organization dedicating to serving the parties involved in international economic and trade, commercial and investment disputes, as well as preventing and resolving international disputes.
     
      此外,ICDPASO并非政府发起的政府间国际组织,而是由CCPIT发起。原因是政府间国际组织需以各国所签署的国际条约作为成立基础,而短期内促成各国谈判条约的难度较大。CCPIT也称中国国际商会,由其发起设立ICDPASO,相比之下更具可行性。
     
      In addition, ICDPASO is not an intergovernmental international organization initiated by the governments, which entails the international treaties as the basis and is therefore difficult to be established within the short term. Instead, it is a non-governmental international organization initiated by CCPIT (also known as China International Chamber of Commerce), which is obviously more feasible.
     
      (三)服务范围:仲裁、调解、预防三位一体
     
      3. Service scope: arbitration, mediation and dispute prevention all in one
     
      ICDPASO提供的案件服务包括商事仲裁、投资仲裁、争端预防、商事调解等,从而发挥多种争端解决机制的优势。这体现为,首先,其吸收了传统国际争端解决机构的经验,其次,其发挥了东方文化的特征,即强调谈判、调解,再次,其引入争端预防等创新。
     
      ICDPASO provides diversified dispute settlement mechanisms, such as commercial arbitration, investment arbitration, dispute prevention, commercial mediation, etc. This is reflected in the following aspects: firstly, it draws on the experience of traditional international dispute settlement institutions; secondly, it gives full play to the Oriental culture, that is, it values negotiation and mediation; thirdly, it introduces the dispute prevention mechanism.
     
      ICDPASO希望克服现有争端解决机构在运行中存在的问题,促进国际争端预防与解决的深入协调发展。
     
      ICDPASO hopes to overcome the operation problems of existing dispute settlement institutions, as well as to promote the development of international dispute prevention and settlement.
     
      三、ICDPASO的理念
     
      III. ICDPASO’s pursuit
     
      (一)民间性
     
      1. Non-government
     
      ICDPASO为非政府间国际组织,相比之下,International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes则是政府间国际组织。因此,ICDPASO将会更加中立,也将会更有利于赢得商事主体的信任。
     
      Compared with the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes, an intergovernmental international organization, ICDPASO enjoys a non-government nature and will be more impartial and more likely to win the trust of commercial entities.
     
      ICDPASO的发起人CCPIT,是一个受政府支持的非政府组织。但是,CCPIT对ICDPASO的设立和运行提供人才和经验,且不会干预该机构的日常具体事务。ICDPASO对其受理的案件将收取一定的费用,但其不以营利为目的,该费用只是用于其发展。
     
      CCPIT, the initiator of ICDPASO, is an NGO supported by the government. Although CCPIT provides talent resources and operation experience for the establishment and operation of ICDPASO, it will not interfere with the specific daily affairs of ICDPASO. ICDPASO will charge a certain fee for the cases it accepts, but this is not for profit-making but only for self-development purposes.
     
      (二)国际性
     
      2. Internationality
     
      ICDPASO具有规则和原则上的国际性,能够克服现有中国法律中存在的不确定性因素。
     
      The rules and principles of ICDPASO are of an international nature, which enables it to overcome some uncertainties in the existing Chinese laws.
     
      中国本国的仲裁制度存在与国际通行仲裁制度的少量差异。但是,ICDPASO能则可以创新仲裁规则,特别是对国际通行的仲裁规则进行吸收与接纳。此外, ICDPASO允许当事人选择使用中文、英文或其他语种,从而便于不同法系的法律执业者。
     
      There are a few differences between China’s arbitration system and the international arbitration system. However, ICDPASO can innovate its arbitration rules, especially, it can absorb international arbitration rules. In addition, ICDPASO allows the parties to choose to settle disputes in Chinese, English or other languages, thus facilitating legal practitioners from different legal systems.
     
      (三)公正性
     
      3. Impartiality
     
      ICDPASO对发展中国家的诉求给予充分关注,提升争端解决机制的公正性。
     
      ICDPASO pays full attention to the demands of developing countries and improves the impartiality of its dispute settlement mechanism.
     
      当前的国际投资仲裁,侧重于维护外国投资者利益,而对东道国特别是发展中国家的实际情况有所忽视,因此其对发展中国家实质上是不利的。[2]
     
      At present, the international investment arbitration focuses more on safeguarding the interests of foreign investors, while sometimes neglecting the actual situation of host countries, especially developing countries.
     
      ICDPASO将吸收更多发展中国家的仲裁员、调解员、理事会成员,从而提升发展中国家在国际争端解决中的话语权。
     
      In view of this, ICDPASO will absorb more arbitrators, mediators and council members from developing countries, so as to give a greater say in developing countries in international dispute settlement.
     
      与此同时,ICDPASO还会综合运用预防与调解等机制,从而合理平衡当事人之间的利益,提升争端解决结果的实质公正性。
     
      At the same time, ICDPASO will also tactfully utilize prevention and mediation mechanisms to balance the interests of the parties and enhance the substantive fairness of the dispute settlement results.
     
      值得注意的是,在投资仲裁及商事仲裁中,ICDPASO设置了选择性上诉机构,从而将仲裁员个人因素对仲裁结果的不利影响降至最低。这体现了其重视公正地解决与公共利益相关的争端。
     
      It should be noted that in investment and commercial arbitration, ICDPASO has set up an optional appellate body, so as to minimize the adverse impact of the arbitrator’s personal factors on the arbitration results. This reflects its emphasis on the impartial settlement of disputes related to the public interest.
     
      四、ICDPASO的业务特点
     
      IV. ICDPASO’s business features
     
      (一)注重调解
     
      1. Valuing mediation
     
      ICDPASO将发挥中国传统文化“定分止争” 及以和为贵,即发挥调解的作用,以促进争端的高效解决。
     
      With full consideration of Chinese traditional culture “end the dispute and resolve the divergence”(定分止争) and “harmony comes first”(以和为贵), ICDPASO will give full play to mediation to promote the efficient settlement of disputes.
     
      现有的国际争端解决机制大多注重“定分”而非“止争”,这种诉讼化的争端解决机制事实上违背了仲裁机构设立的初衷,[3]不利于商事主体维护可持续的商事合作关系,特别是不利于中小企业在国际争端中的利益维护。
     
      By contrast, most of the existing international dispute settlement mechanisms focus on “end the dispute” rather than “resolve the divergence”. In fact, this litigation-like dispute settlement mechanism goes against the original intention of arbitration institutions, which is not conducive to the maintenance of sustainable commercial cooperation between commercial entities, especially unfavorable to the interests of SMEs in international disputes.
     
      中国文化强调以和为贵,因此中国国内的纠纷解决机制长期以来一直注重调解。ICDPASO在借鉴国内外调解经验的基础上,在调解人员、调解程序、调解规则等方面进行创新,从而确保调解的中立性、透明度、公正性和高效性。
     
      As the Chinese old saying “harmony comes first”, the dispute settlement mechanism in China has been focusing on mediation for ages. Based on the experience of mediation at home and abroad, ICDPASO innovates in mediation personnel, mediation procedures and mediation rules, so as to ensure the neutrality, transparency, impartiality and efficiency of mediation.
     
      此外,ICDPASO也将建立调解与仲裁的衔接及转换机制,从而克服单一化争端解决机制的弊端,进一步提升争端解决的效率。
     
      In addition, ICDPASO will also establish the connection and synergetic cooperation  between mediation and arbitration, in order to overcome the disadvantages of a single dispute settlement mechanism and further improve the efficiency.
     
      (二)重视预防
     
      2. Appreciating prevention
     
      ICDPASO注重事先预防,从而为国际商事主体大幅度降低法律风险。
     
      ICDPASO attaches importance to dispute prevention, so as to greatly reduce the legal risk faced by international commercial entities.
     
      现有争端解决机构对争端预防鲜有关注。CCPIT则希望在深入分析各国经贸、投资的法律规则的基础上,建立争端预防机制,从源头上减少纠纷的发生。
     
      The existing dispute settlement institutions pay little attention to dispute prevention. However, CCPIT hopes to establish a dispute prevention mechanism based on an in-depth analysis of the trade and investment rules of various countries, trying to reduce the occurrence of disputes from the source.
     
      (三)节约成本
     
      3. Cost saving
     
      ICDPASO重视时间与费用成本的控制。
     
      ICDPASO attaches importance to the control of time and cost.
     
      近年来,国际商事仲裁案件的费用与时间陡然增加。 ICDPASO参考了2007年国际商事仲裁委员会发布的《控制仲裁时间与成本的方法》,在控制时间与管理费用成本上进行了创新性,例如引入了快速驳回程序、紧急仲裁员程序、允许仲裁庭对费用进行酌定等。
     
      In recent years, the cost and time of international commercial arbitration cases have increased sharply. By referring to ICC Arbitration Commission Report on Techniques for Controlling Time and Costs in Arbitration (2007), ICDPASO has made innovations in controlling time and administrative cost, such as the introduction of expedited dismissal procedures, emergency arbitrator procedures, discretion of the arbitral tribunal on cost allocation, etc.
     
      五、总结
     
      V. Conclusion
     
      ICDPASO迎合了国际争端解决机制的最新发展趋势,弥补现有争端解决机制的不足,在具体案件中能够促进争端的高效、公正解决。
     
      ICDPASO caters to the latest development trend of the international dispute settlement mechanism, makes up for the shortcomings of the existing dispute settlement mechanism, and therefore promotes the efficient and fair settlement of specific disputes.
     
      在理念上,它坚持非政府性和非营利性,并辅之以政府支持;其规则和原则是国际化特征,从而提升当事人对中心的信任度;对发展中国家的利益给予充分关注,从而提升争端解决的实质公平。
     
      In terms of vision and pursuits, ICDPASO insists on its non-government and non-profit nature, with government support; to gain the parties’ trust, its rules and principles are international-oriented; and to increase substantive fairness, it pays full attention to the interests of developing countries.
     
      在具体事务方面,它注重发挥调解在争端解决机制中的作用,并创新调解规则和程序;重视争端预防机制,突出各种争端解决机制的衔接和综合运用;其建立了新的机制,以减少当事人的时间成本和费用成本。
     
      In terms of specific affairs, ICDPASO values the role of mediation in the dispute settlement mechanism, and innovates mediation rules and procedures; it attaches importance to the dispute prevention mechanism and highlights the connection and synergetic cooperation among multiple dispute settlement mechanisms; it establishes new mechanisms to reduce the time and cost of the parties.

    【作者简介】
    张建,首都经济贸易大学讲师。
    【注释】
    [1] 《关于建立“一带一路”争端解决机制和机构的意见》提出,要建立“一带一路”争端解决机制和机构,要坚持共商共建共享原则,依托我国现有司法、仲裁和调解机构,吸收、整合国内外法律服务资源,建立诉讼、调解、仲裁有效衔接的多元化纠纷解决机制,依法妥善化解“一带一路”商贸和投资争端,平等保护中外当事人合法权益,营造稳定、公平、透明的法治化营商环境
    [2] See Fabien Besson, Racem Mehdi, Is WTO Dispute Settlement System Biased Against Developing Countries? An Empirical Analysis, available at https://ecomod.net/sites/default/files/document-conference/ecomod2004/199.pdf.
    [3] See 杨玲:《国际商事仲裁程序研究》,法律出版社2011年版,第196-197页。

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